Sales and Operations Planning – Getting Past the Dead End

If you were to ask a senior leader of a company about initiatives that are being taken to move the S&OP process in the company to next level, majority of them will tell you that they already do it very well. Some of them may give you an impression that they have, sort of, perfected the process.  The next question I would ask is, “If that is so, then both customers and shareholders must be delighted”. The most common response to the statement is a blank look.

S&OP concept is three-decade old that was originally designed to balance and getting cross-functional alignment to demand and supply plans. The companies adopted the process for varied reasons – some genuinely believed in its greatness and others because they did not want to be seen as not doing the right things. Whatever may have been the reasons, in most cases it was perceived and implemented as a process by supply chain and for supply chain. And, it made sense as the main objective was balance demand and supply.  Other functions i.e. Sales, Marketing, Finance, Manufacturing understood their roles in the process but their ownership has always remained a challenge. The key reasons of disengagement are:

  • Misalignment in the reward system e.g. sales being rewarded on achieving annual targets while supply chain on forecast accuracy, inventory & so on.
  • Silo mindset continues to exist. People meeting for the demand and supply reviews should not be construed as collaboration. Most meetings end up in fixing blames for the past problems and sandbagging the future plans.
  • No clear accountability for the metrics
  • Inadequate process governance. The discipline of the meetings, preparation, data quality etc. take a backseat making the whole process inefficient and burdensome.

It has been found that the business heads, the owners of S&OP process, also lose interest after few cycles. The primary reason for this behavior is too much focus on short term and operational level details. The business heads are interested in answers to three fundamental questions:

  1. How are we performing against the business goals and strategy?
  2. What are the key risks and gaps that can derail the journey towards the goals?
  3. What needs to be done to safeguard against these risks and overcome the gaps?

When the business heads do not see these questions being addressed through the S&OP process they tend to disengage.  They also hate to play the role of referees in the verbal fights between different functions in the executive S&OP meetings.

These symptoms indicate that the S&OP in these companies has reached a dead end. According to a study by Gartner most of the companies are stuck in stage 2 of S&OP maturity.

The only way to get past the dead end is to re-position and reorient the entire process as business focused, instead of demand & supply focused. Oliver Wight, the originators of S&OP process, have rechristened the process to Integrated Business Planning (IBP) – not just a change in the name but it is a change in the approach as well as mindset. Anything that helps in answering the three questions from the business heads, mentioned above, should be part of the IBP scope. All the business reviews and decision making meetings should be merged with and made part of IBP.  Oliver Wight talks about number of differentiators of IBP process, but there are three main drivers of change that can help you to take your S&OP journey past the dead end.

  1. Broaden the Scope

While the demand and supply balancing may continue to play heavy on the agenda but the scope should include key strategic initiatives and projects e.g. new customers acquisition, products phase in and phase out, operational efficiency improvement, new supplier development etc. Broadening of scope will automatically engage and excite all the functional stakeholders.

  1. Change the Language

Supply chain folks speak the language of SKUs and volumes, whereas business heads understand the language of value or dollars. Therefore, a strong financial integration and capability to translate plans into revenue, profit and cash flow is the key to the transformation. Similarly, the sales heads need to be spoken in the language of customers, channels and territories. Marketing heads like to hear the language of products, categories and markets.

  1. Recognize uncertainty

Traditional S&OP has always tried to project one number. We all know, that in the current business environment reality can change significantly between two planning cycles. Therefore, it makes sense to also look at the potential downside or the upside to the plans. By doing so, you may not end up one number but can still have one version of the plan, which is also known as the range forecast. It immediately enhances your capability to recognize risks and opportunities in the business and entrenches the adequate response in decision making. It would also help in reducing gaps between the plans and execution.

In a nutshell, S&OP is a journey to continuously improve the capability of a business to achieve its goals. There is no maturity level that qualifies for the title of “perfect or ideal S&OP”. While supply chain may continue to play a pivotal role in the process but it is a process owned by the business leaders for the business.

Supply Chain Systems Thinking

Few months back I met one of my friends who happened to be the Supply Chain Director of a company. At that point of time I was contemplating to start my independent venture to support the businesses with supply chain capability and talent development. I casually asked him if he had to choose one capability that he wanted to improve within his team, what would it be? I was expecting a usual answer e.g. demand forecasting, inventory management, cost reduction, service etc. He thought for a moment and I used that moment trying to read changing expressions of his face. And then, he surprised me with his response, “if I can somehow inculcate supply chain thinking within my team, it would significantly take frustration off my head.”

The answer got me into thinking, what does “supply chain thinking” mean? How can people be trained to think “the supply chain way“? Is this gap widespread or one-off? It was good enough to motivate me to dive deep into this topic. In this article, I have put together the summary of my findings on all of the above questions.

The answer to the first question – “what supply chain thinking means”, was easy and most of the supply chain practitioners can easily relate to it. It means that every supply chain decision is a trade-off between numerous drivers that exists across the value chain. For example, a purchasing decision is not just about material cost, lead time and quality but also about production cost, flexibility and end product quality as well as working capital management. Alternatively, one can conclude that a purchasing decision is about the whole system consisting of Supply, Manufacturing and Financing sub-systems. Using it as a case in point, I modified the term to “supply chain systems thinking”.

According to the Institute for Systemic Leadership, systems thinking is a management discipline that concerns an understanding of a system by examining the linkages and interactions between the components that comprise the entirety of that defined system. A very close analogy is human digestive system whose behavior depends entirely on the interplay between various organs constituting the system. Any imbalance between the activities of the organs can impact the health of the whole system.

Supply Chain is a complex system for two reasons:

  1. Anything Systems Thinking 1that happens within or outside the business, directly or indirectly, impacts the supply chain behavior.
  2. Where do you draw boundaries of the supply chain system – within the firm; or in
    clude suppliers and customers; or include suppliers’ suppliers and customers’ customers? The farther you move the systems boundaries, the decision making is more robust but more complex and time taking. Therefore, one needs to carefully balance the speed and accuracy of decision making.

We jump to the 3rd question – “is the gap in systems thinking widespread or one-off?” Speaking to various people in the supply chain fraternity, it became apparent that the gap is not one-off. In one of the articles on Systems Thinking and the Supply Chain by David Schneider, the author states, “yet while nearly all of us recognize the supply chain as a system, I will maintain most managers and executives do not really operate that way on a consistent basis”. The root cause of the gap lies in poorly defined supply chain system boundaries and lack of understanding of the cause and effect relationships between supply chain and other business drivers.

To begin with, supply chain people define their system boundaries too narrowly, usually at the beginning and end of their specific roles i.e. purchasing, manufacturing, logistics etc., commonly known as silo thinking. Or, at best they may extend the boundaries one or two steps upstream and downstream of their specific roles. Secondly, they lack either the motivation or capability to zoom out of a problem within a specific area to have a helicopter view of the problem in overall business context.

We now come back to the 2nd question – “How can people be trained to think the supply chain way?”. The first intervention that is required is to develop the business acumen of the supply chain people. They should have a clear understanding of how each action and decision impacts the Return on Investment (ROI) or the Economic Value Added (EVA). Once this capability is developed, people will evaluate their decisions on the business criteria instead of the functional criteria. It will also enable them to dynamically play with the systems boundaries depending on the complexity of the decision making.

Second important intervention that is required is to make supply chain people master the interplay of various business drivers. They should see every decision in supply chain as a trade-off across the value chain and not just within the focused firm. For example, a high customer service commitment can result in high product expiry or obsolescence of a perishable product (I challenge the readers to plot the cause and effect relationships to prove it). Such interventions can be carried out neither by conventional training in the classroom nor by pointing out on the job (that may have a long learning curve and high cost of making errors).

The most appropriate way to make people learn supply chain systems thinking is using the experiential learning within a simulated environment – that provides the ability to make, evaluate and improve decisions in a real life business case. At Advanchainge, we have taken a mission to change the way supply chain talent development has been conventionally looked at. We use world’s best value chain learning simulation, The Fresh Connection, to develop capability on supply chain systems thinking.

If you have any suggestions or thoughts, feel free to pen down your comments below.

Experiential Learning – New Way to Learn Supply Chain Management

Most of us would have attended various training programs at some point of time or the other. How much of the stuff “learnt” during the training did we really assimilate, apply and practice on the job leading to eureka moment? Probably none!

Therefore, training is passé and experiential learning is in.

050g6t8Experiential Leaning is a method of educating through first-hand experience. According to David Kolb, father of experiential learning theory, learning is a process whereby knowledge is created by transformation of experience. It essentially means choosing “doing” over “watching” and “feeling” over “thinking”.  There is no better way of delivering experiential learning but through simulations that allows learners to work on real-life problems, make mistakes, and see the outcomes of their decisions then and there. And not the least, experience the eureka moment and a greater confidence of applying the learning on the job.

The famous Beer Game was the first such simple simulation used to experience supply chain dynamics, bullwhip effect and coordination. It had served its purpose well as long as supply chains were simple and stable. With supply chains becoming global, complex and unpredictable the need of the hour is more sophisticated and wholesome simulation that mirrors real- life situations and problems.

The Fresh Connection is one of the world’s leading interactive team based simulation that provides an exceptional means for learning how to make sound value chain decisions by balancing trade-offs across supply chain. Learners, working in teams, can see the impact of the decisions on the company’s ROI instantly and dive deep to analyze the results. They make mistakes, reflect on the impact of their decisions and take corrective actions. It creates that eureka moment for the learners when they see how their decision finally turn around a loss making company into profitable one and they compete with each other to maximize the ROI. The simulation rewards the teams that work in a collaborative mode and sync their value chains to a common business strategy.

logo-TFC-02No wonder, the simulation has been used by 10000+ professionals from 750+ companies from 25 countries. Every year hundreds of practitioners and students participate in the annual global competition using The Fresh Connection.

Click here for more details on The Fresh Connection

Click here to watch an introductory video on The Fresh Connection

If you wish to explore this simulation to develop supply chain competency for your organization, please write to or visit